Friday, March 13, 2020
Holding High Standards... The Power of Disaffirming If you manage other people and you hold high standards for work product, you probably have encountered a situation or two where you have had to tell someone they did not do a good enough job. How do you feel when you face this type of situation? Do you feel bad about it afterward? Or do you feel empowered and like you made a positive difference in the world? I grew up thinking that if I corrected someone or disaffirmed them, I was being mean and overly critical. I still did it, but I felt self-critical more than anything else and made myself wrong for hurting others. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been spending the better part of the last year becoming more comfortable with my opinions and with expressing them, even if I know someone might feel hurt. As the owner of a company who cares greatly about the quality of the work we put out, I have many opportunities to be honest with people about their writing. Ã¢â¬Å"Behind the scenesÃ¢â¬ at the Essay Expert, I work with a team of subcontractors and review their work before it goes out to a client. Sometimes the first drafts that come to me do not meet my standards. And The Essay ExpertÃ¢â¬â¢s clients count on my high standards. Last week, I faced two situations that inspired me to write about the power of disaffirmation in creating results and even cultivating relationships. In one, I received a draft of a LinkedIn summary from one of my writers that I felt didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hit the mark. There was time for me to have a quick call with him and steer him in the right direction. I told him what didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work about what he wrote and gave him some different ideas of how to approach the project. The second draft was brilliant and hereÃ¢â¬â¢s what the client, who lives in Switzerland, had to say: Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you so much for sending the draft. I cannot put my first reaction into words (not even in German) in the very best meaning of the word!Ã¢â¬ If I had been shy about issuing corrections, I would not have had such a happy client. Because I disaffirmed the writer, he learned about how to write for a new type of client and both of us got to feel great about the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s response. In another situation, an editor took 5 hours to edit a document that would have taken me 3. Not only that, but she sent it to me an hour late and failed to correct some glaring errors in the document. I spent 2 hours editing the document before sending it to the client- 1 hour more than I would have spent if I had edited it myself. Again, my disaffirming power sprang into action. I very directly told her about the problems I saw and what I was prepared to pay her for her work. We ultimately reached an agreement and parted amicably. Sometimes when I work with someone on a project like a law school admissions essay, the applicant tells me not to hold back with my criticism. I laugh when they make this request Ã¢â¬â I have no problem telling it like I see it! But when it comes to critiquing in a managerial role, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve historically had a more difficult time. The greatest part about these two recent experiences to me is that I felt strong and good about myself even though I had criticized people I am managing. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been learning a lot about stepping into a managerial role in a powerful way. Sometimes disaffirmation can hurt both the recipient and me- but what hurts more is compromising on what I know is right, or on the quality of the work my business produces. Ultimately I am somewhat of a mama bear, willing to growl a bit in order to provide a top product to my clients. I will take strong action, give direct feedback, and use the power of disaffirmation if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what it takes to run a successful and well-respected business. If you are in a managerial position, how do you express your criticism? How do you handle it when someone fails to come through in the way you expect? Are you willing to talk straight to people? And how do you feel when you donÃ¢â¬â¢t? And whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the bigger goal that inspires you to take the actions you take?
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Strategy plan - Essay Example Rise Art is created by two close friends and it is inspired by the desire of art and knowledge. Rise Art assists artists to support and expand their functions in creative aspects. The organisation provides an online platform which can simplify the discovery of art to be easy and enjoyable. The art works which are traded by Rise Art are handmade and developed by the team. The organisation performs in conjecture with graduate degree programs in universities, schools, colleges, art galleries and museums in order to provide the customers with an access to incredible level of art (Rise Art Ltd, 2013). Research and Situation Creative industry plays a vital part in the growth of economy. It drives innovation, sustainability and prosperity of a nation. This creativity arrives from several sources namely arts, design, fashion, music and dance among others. The worth of creative industry is not purely practical in nature rather it communicates cultural value and social position of a nation. Si nce different people possess diverse imaginations and gifts, their creations are believed to have certain sensitive value. In the 21st century, these creativities such as designing, decorating or painting started to intertwine together with a range of modern business activities (Crown, 2011). In the UK, creative industry has contributed about ?36.3 billion Gross Value Added (GVA), signifying about 2.89% of total GVA in the year 2009. Among different segments of creative industry, publishing, advertising and television & radio provided the most support to the GVA of the UK. The creative industry also exported different services worth ?8.9 billion in 2009. This figure signifies the implication of creative industry in the UK (Crown, 2011). In the year 2011, there were about 106,700 creative organisations representing 5.1% of entire UKÃ¢â¬â¢s organisations. From 2009 to 2011, small growth was observed in the number of creative enterprises. Among other segments, music, visual and arts segments have replicated the utmost number of organisations in creative industry i.e. 1.5% of entire UKÃ¢â¬â¢s organisations. Apart from this, advertising, architecture, design and film organisations also represent considerable number of organisations in the UK (Crown, 2011). SWOT Analysis Before developing any communication strategy, it is essential to understand the key strengths and weaknesses of an organisation. Following is the SWOT analysis of Rise Art which would be helpful for developing communication strategy. Strengths Weaknesses Strong market of art Niche customer segment Online interactions Alignment with campuses, art galleries and museums Limited opportunity to make revenue Weak presence in online media Low brand reputation Opportunities Threats Involve the young consumer segment Drive promotional campaign to enhance fan and supporter base Use different public relations (PR) techniques to enhance brand image Competition from other art organisations Evolution in art c an generate confusion for requisite spread of messages Economic condition can reduce the spending of customers of art related products Goals and Objectives The key objectives of the communication plan are: To develop strategies for introducing Rise Art as one of the leading art organisations in creative industry of the UK To drive more traffic to the website developed by Rise Art by involving young customer segment To successfully implement PR strategy in order to enhance brand
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Decisions in USA Super Cars - Assignment Example Exchange rate is a rate of a foreign currency determined on the basis of home currency. In this regard, companies and banks operations on a global context are concerned about exchange rate owing to the fact that business sustainability, loss and profit on business transactions are based on it. Uncertainty in exchange rate between nations lays immense impact on the overall revenue attainment scope of all global business processes. The intensity of such impact can be witnessed within the automobile manufacturing organizations (Reserve Bank of Australia, 2014; The New York Times Company, 2013). The report will specifically focus on analyzing the patterns through which uncertainty within exchange rates lays a direct / indirect impact on revenue generation rates of the global business organizations. It will identify and elaborate the emergence of multiple other risk factors as a result of the unpredictable exchange rates. An instance in this context includes the risk that will be incurred by the global and nationalized banks because of uncertain exchange rates. Additionally, the efforts made by the governments of multiple nations towards minimizing the fluctuation within the exchange rates will also be considered as a part of this report. The primary scope associated with this report will be regarding the identification of maximum and minimum values of the exchange rates that is prevalent within the US. Furthermore, analysis of the provided data by using standard deviation technique can help in identifying the possibilities through which the uncertainties within the US exchange can be brought down to the minimum possible levels. In addition, scope in alignment with this topic includes the possible options through which the revenue generation procedures of the global business transaction of companies can be improvised (Biz/ed, 2014). In
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Degree Appraisals Essay General ElectricsÃ¢â¬â¢ Durham, North Carolina assembly employees have a unique work environment in which they build the GE90 jet engine for Boeing. The 9 engine build teams consist of approximately 18 employees who own the entire process of assembling some 10,000 parts perfectly to create one complete engine assembly. The teams are self managed, doing everything from ordering parts and tools to scheduling vacation and overtime. The success of the teams comes from their founding method of agreement by consensus decisions making. In fact, the consensus decision making process has become a way of life to many of these employees, and management decisions are only needed about 12 decisions per year. Although employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t always have unanimous agreement, there is seldom any blame when things go wrong because of their strong trusting relationships. This type of consensus management has instilled a high level of trust relationships among the team members and their superiors. These self-managed teams operate in a culture of continuous feedback and rely on management to make them aware of problems and report solutions. Beyond the day-to-day decisions making, any major issues, such as safety and cost, are decided by a task force. The plant manager informs and educates the task force and employees about the problem and why it is important, and the task force decides how to address problems. The task force takes the responsibility to find solutions and decisions are reporting back to plant management on what the future solutions will be. These solutions and decisions made by the task force are communicate to the plant manager and then on to the higher-ups for their buy in. The Plant Manager Paula Sims, who has been on the job 4 years, has proposed to HR that she would like initiate a 360-degree review to supplement existing performanceÃ measures. Ms. SimsÃ¢â¬â¢ proposal is met with some concerns from HR, it is assumed that HR has concerns that implementing a new system without a consensus decision will breakdown trust with the employees and limit the willing participation if the 360 review were to be implemented. Root Problem The root problem with Ms. Sims proposal is that the implementation goes directly against the culture of consensus agreement on making decisions for the teams and the plant. Since this would be considered a major change, it should be brought to a task force for review and solution, or at minimum be brought to the attention of all employees. In the past, Ms. Sims has experienced issues of missed trust with the assembly teams and this direct approach with HR for the implementation a new performance measure stands to have an equally negative effect. Alternative Ideas In order to address the root problem, HR would like to propose some alternative ideas to Ms. Sims proposals that could include awareness of GE corporate use general of 360 degree performance measures in other locations. Investigations on the benefits from other GE plants should be presented to employees to gain a better understanding and buy-in of the proposal. Knowing the culture of feedback that exist within the plant, Ms. Sims could call for a task force to investigate the benefits of 360 degree feedback and make a direction decision on the use of 360 degree appraisals. In consideration of alternative ideas, Ms. Sims should consider approaching the employees and HR by providing factual information about the value of peer reviews. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"research shows that appraisals by peers are useful predictors of training success and future performanceÃ¢â¬ (Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., Werner, S., 2012). Additionally, since the GE employees are team-based units, it is also been shown that anonymous peer appraisals in teams increase interpersonal effectiveness, group cohesion, communication openness and group satisfaction (Jackson, et al, 2012). Furthermore, she could gain more leverage by stating the success of the peer reviews in other GE facilities, as real life inter-company example. The last alternative is simply do nothing and keep the current system as it is without a 360 degree review. Considering Ms. Sims determination to implement the new appraisal, she should consider a trial basis with a one the nine teams as a test bedÃ from training implementation and use of the 360 review. As multiple alternatives have been presented, a closer evaluation of each proposal is the necessary to derive the what is believed to the best alternative. 1. Awareness and Buy-in Ã¢â¬â this alternative looks at bringing awareness to the 360-degree appraisal as a supplemental appraisal by providi ng factual information on the benefits of the program at GEÃ¢â¬â¢s jet engine plant. Awareness makes buy-in easier when at the end of the day, you allow the teams to make a decision by consensus on the implementation of the new peer review. 2. Empowered team decision Ã¢â¬â this alternative simply turns the information and decision back to the team and task force. This alternative is the most cohesive alternative and aligns well with the culture of the company. 3. Trial basis this alternative assume Ms. Sims pushes her idea forward and assumes she will be met with some resistance during the implementation phase. In this case focusing on a smaller beta test group proves to be easier to manage and create buy-in with when the results show positive improvements. 4. Status Quo Ã¢â¬â this alternative assumes that nothing is done, no implementation is agreed upon and the current performance measures stay in place without a 360-degree appraisal. Choose an Alternative Implementation In an effort to maintain the strong trusting relationships that exist at the various levels of team members and management, it is recommended that the alternative proposal of Ã¢â¬Å"awareness and buy-inÃ¢â¬ be selected and acted upon. Implementation of this plan will begin with Ms. Sims collecting and presenting data from both internal GE resources and external resources to show the benefits of supplementing the current performance appraisals with a 360-degree peer review. Next Ms. Sims must work directly with HR to plan an appropriate training period and plan in conjunction with the roll out of information to the 9 assembly teams. This portion of the preparation should include the consideration of one group to be the test bed or beta group for evaluation purposes. Once the information is presented to all the employees, an internal task force should be commissioned to evaluate the information provided by Ms. Sims for the purpose my allowing the continuance of the consensus culture . There are a multitude of options this management team has in considering the addition of the new peer review. However,Ã allowing the teams and/or special task force to make the decision on their own and continue to feel the sense of ownership is paramount in the implementation phase of the proposal. Therefore it is recommended that after the beta group is selected and effectively trained, HR and Ms. Sims must monitor the effectiveness of the raters over an initially shorter period of time for the appraisals to take place. This step will be for the purpose of training and evaluation. Based the results from the six months data collection and feedback from the Beta group, Ms. Sims and HR will determine if further training is needed, if the employees are seeing value in the productivity and performance improvements as a result of using the 360 degree appraisals. If the results are positive the information will be shared with the task force and all employees for further implementation and training, beyond the beta group. Reference Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., Werner, S (2012). Managing Human Resources (11th edition)., Mason, OH: South-Western
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Use Of The Diary Form Narrative in The Novel Dracula Bram Stoker, being the creative and intellectual writer himself, wrote the novel Dracula in the diary form of narrative. This was a good choice of how to write the novel since it was very beneficial to the plot of Dracula. Examples of how the diary form is beneficial to Dracula is seen in his writing and book. One of the greatest benefits of the diary narrative is that the reader is allowed see, and feel the emotional hearts and souls of the emotional characters. This is great because when a character is not feeling too great and is trying hide something, the reader knows this, and therefore the reader knows everything that is happening; nothing is being hidden from the reader. An example of this happening is when Mina is at the insane asylum and is worried sick about something happening to Jonathan Harker. Mina hides all that she feels when Jonathan Harker is near her. All that Mina is feeling is written by herself, and what, how she is feeling is ready for a reader to examine because they are able to see her diary. If Mina's diary was not open to the reader, or if Someone was telling of what he or she saw, the observation could be false and the reader would lose valuable information that would be valuable to the whole plot of the book. Some things that can be noticed about the diary form is that different views of the same thing can be expressed by many different people; all in first person view. Then, along with that, there are extensive and very detailed descriptions about a thing, or person that is being described. In the novel, this is seen as Jonathan Harker is traveling and he describes almost everything, he does, eat, sees, etc. Another use of the diary form is that Bram Stoker can have people "talk to themselves." So if the person who is writing in his or her diary, that person can make notes to him/herself writing "I must ask the Count about this." So by "talking to him/her own self" in this manner, he is writing it down and they do not in any way make it so that they seem strange in front of public.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
When we think of the history of the traditional, American movie going, a number of images come to mind: the mighty organ accompanying a movie palaceÃ¢â¬â¢s silent-era feature, the Iconic searchlights proclaiming a Golden Age Hollywood premiere, teenagers cruising at the local drive in, an audience of otherwise sensibly attired adults wearing cardboard, and young adults carrying five dollar bills to the Cineplex at the end of the mall in order to see the latest sequel. But while these iconic, even stereotypical, images suggest something of the truth behind the American movie theaterÃ¢â¬â¢s history, they also omit much of the social reality that has co-existed along with these instances of the mainstream filmgoing experience. While Hollywood features and first-run urban theaters may have greater single importance than any other mode of exhibition, a number of other important alternatives have fleshed out audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ encounters with film. One such alternative, with a fascinating yet understudied history all its own, was the Black movie house circuit that existed in the United States from (at least) 1907 until the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s (Crafton 412). With the project in mind of examining the cultural, social, and economic history of Black film theaters. I will discuss in this essay the development of Black film theaters in Austin, Texas, focusing especially on that cityÃ¢â¬â¢s longest standing and most prominent Ã¢â¬Å"showÃ¢â¬ , the Harlem Theater. Although movies came to the Texas capital before the turn of the century and all-movie theaters began to proliferate there during AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s post-1905 nickelodeon boom, the first recorded Ã¢â¬Å"coloredÃ¢â¬ film theater Ã¢â¬â the Dixie-Dale Ã¢â¬â opened in Austin in 1920 under the management of Joseph Trammell. I found no other details about Trammell or the Dixie-Dale, but it is recorded that after two years the theater was renamed the Lincoln and managed by A. C. Lawson until it closed in 1928 or 1929. Austin also supported a second Black movie house in the 1920s. The Lyric, which opened in 1922, just one block east of the downtown Lincoln, was owned and operated by Dr. Everett H. Givens, a practicing dentist (with an office next door) who would become AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent Black civic leader from the 1930s until his death in 1962. For reasons unclear at this point, Dr. GivensÃ¢â¬â¢ Lyric, which changed its name to the Dunbar when A. C. Lawson took over its management in 1929, survived the Lincoln by a few years, closing in 1931. Whether the fist Black film theaters in Austin closed due to the Depression, the cost of converting to sound, or some other reason, is impossible to judge given the paucity of data available about these enterprises. However, placing the existence of the Lincoln and the Lyric in the contexts of both African American life in Austin and the concurrent national Black film theater scene enhances a historical understanding of these two houses both as business and as entertainment venues. From a national perspective, we know that the motion picture theater, with its roots in the Jim Crow era, had always been subject to racial segregation. Sometimes Black patrons were restricted to balconies or other special sections of the theater, but Black-only theaters were common in the United States from at least 1910, a year when a Black newspaper in Washington wrote matter-of-factly that Ã¢â¬Å"there are separate motion picture theaters among the whites and blacks in this countryÃ¢â¬ (Washington Bee 4). Although at the turn of the century Ã¢â¬Å"there was hardly a theater for colored people in the entire United StatesÃ¢â¬ (Negro Yearbook, 24), by 1925, there were at least 425 Black theaters (of all types), virtually all of which offered films Ã¢â¬Å"in whole or part. Of these, nearly half were, like the Lyric and possibly the Lincoln, Black-owned (Negro Yearbook, 379). But ownership of Black movie houses, in contrast to the first-run, White theaters of the day, was not done by regional or national chains, nor by affiliated circuits; because houses operated independently, the dynamics of local conditions of affected theaters like the Lincoln as much as national structure did. Historically, social and economic conditions changed greatly for AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s Black movie houses appeared. During and after Reconstruction, Black neighborhoods had existed in several locations around Austin: Clarksville in west Austin, Kincheonville to the south, Gregoryville in East Austin, Masontown in the southeast. HorseÃ¢â¬â¢s Pasture and Wheatville to the north, and so on (Austin American-Statesman, D41). Compared to other towns of the time, particularly in the South, race relations were fairly calm, albeit within the practice of institutionalized racism. The town boasted Ã¢â¬Å"three colleges and institutions for colored people,Ã¢â¬ maintained some neighborhoods (such as Masontown) that were racially integrated among Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Asians, and in general obtained a reputation as a town without the major problems of racial violence that plagued most American communities. But during the Ã¢â¬Ëteens segregation patterns began to developÃ¢â¬â¢ (Freeman). In 1919 a White representative of the young NAACp was beaten by a White mob in the middle of downtown, and in the 1920s Ã¢â¬Å"the city of Austin created a Ã¢â¬ËNegro districtÃ¢â¬â¢ in East AustinÃ¢â¬ ¦ inducing blacks to move thereÃ¢â¬ by implementing though zoning laws elsewhere (Austin American-Statesman, D41). So it was that the majority of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s African American population (which has consistently remained at just below 20 percent of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s total) became concentrated in an area east of downtown and between 12th Street to the north and 7th Street to the south. Not surprisingly, then, both of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s silent-era Black theaters were built on East 6th Street, near the racial dividing line of East Avenue, within the only downtown shopping and dining district that served Black patrons, yet away from the White theater district on the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s main thoroughfare of Congress Avenue. I could uncover little information, however, that would indicate the nature or reception of these early movie houses. Longtime Austin resident I. C. Jones recalled visiting the Lincoln as a child, where he remembers a piano player accompanying the motion picture entertainment. Lonnie Bell, who wrote for the Black press in Austin for 50 years, indicates that in the 1920s both the Lyric and the Ã¢â¬Å"Lawson Lincoln TheaterÃ¢â¬ were among the very few venues for Black entertainment in the city and so Ã¢â¬Å"did well before the Great Depression in Ã¢â¬â¢29. Ã¢â¬ (10)Other information about Everett Givens also indicates that he made the Lyric/Dunbar into a focal point for the Black community, viewing the theater as a civic improvement projects as much as a business investment. Flachmeier 32) That these two movie houses were well received an supported by the Black community can also be inferred from the fact that a 1940 account of Austin history prepared by students at Tiltson College (a Black institution) referred to the era of 1905 to 1929 as a time when Ã¢â¬Å"privately owned amusement centers were developedÃ¢â¬ by Blacks Ã¢â¬â even though no other Black amusements of second were instituted during this period (Brewer 34). As I mentioned earlier , the cause for these theatersÃ¢â¬â¢ demise cannot be established absolutely, but several factors undoubtedly offer reasonable explanations. BellÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion that it was the economic devastation of the Depression that closed the Lincoln and Dunbar makes logical economic sense. Black theater owners, like even the big-time operators, would have been hit hard as the US economy collapsed. Moreover, inasmuch as movie tickets are purchased with Ã¢â¬Å"disposableÃ¢â¬ income, Black patrons would have been especially likely to curtail their moviegoing since even before the Depression Blacks in Austin earned only one-half the wage of White workers. More specifically, both houses in Austin would have found it even more difficult to cope with the hard times if they attempted to make the costly transition to sound technology in the late twenties or early thirties. The Dallas Film Board o TradeÃ¢â¬â¢s statistics on Texas theaters indicate that many theaters, especially independently operated ones, closed in the early thirties, having no sound. (In Austin, two of the five White houses, the Crescent and Star, also went out of business in 1929 to 1931. Furthermore, one-third of TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ 30 Ã¢â¬Å"colored theatersÃ¢â¬ were listed as Ã¢â¬Å"closed, no soundÃ¢â¬ by the mid-1930s. Other factors may have led to the closure of the Lincoln and Dunbar, but, given the theatersÃ¢â¬â¢ dependence on the patron-age of a small, economically marginalized population, in the midst of a severe depression their failure is not surprising. But the history of Black film theaters in Austin did not end with the closing of the Dunbar in 1931. In that same year, real estate was purchased and construction begun on a new movie house that would serve as the hub of Black filmgoing in Austin for the next 40 years. The Harlem Theater, which opened on October 5, 1935 (Green 9), distinguished itself from the earlier theaters Ã¢â¬â and all subsequent ones Ã¢â¬â by being located in the heart of East Austin, at 1800 E. 12 Street, where it could better attract Black moviegoers. However, before discussing the reasons for the HarlemÃ¢â¬â¢s longevity, I point out that although it was AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s only exclusively Black theater, it was not without its competitor for Black audiences. All accounts of Austin in the 1930s and forties agree that the Ritz Theater was the only other house that admitted Black patrons on a regular basis, though customers there were limited to balcony seating and made to use a separate entrance. The Ritz, located on the same block of East 6th street where the Lincoln operated, opened in 1930 under White management, showing a variety of second-run Hollywood films. Manager J. J. Hegman (and his son after him) maintained the segregated seating policy until the RitzÃ¢â¬â¢s closing in the early 1960s. More prominent Austin houses, such as those first-run members of the prestigious Interstate Theater Fircuit (the Paramount, Texas, State and Queen), advertised Ã¢â¬Å"colored midnight showsÃ¢â¬ from time to time as part of the chainÃ¢â¬â¢s overall marketing scheme (1942 Yearbook). Thus, while there was some competition for the Black filmgoing audience, segregated, White-managed theaters did not attempt to offer African Americans the filmgoing experience and environment of an all-Black house like the Harlem; however, the Ritz balcony and special events at other White movie establishments did continue to cultivate and maintain Black filmgoing in the Depression, when no Black Austin theaters were open. Harlem were filled by Black employees with the single exception of the projectionists. But for a small neighborhood theater like the Harlem, any sort of product differentiation whether it was with films, live acts, or ambience would have failed to produce enough box offices for the theaterÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. As with any theater, the bulk of the profit came not from fifteen and twenty-five cent admissions, but from concessions. On this count, the Harlem again distinguished itself as unique among Austin theaters. In addition to the usual popcorn, candy and soft drink sales, the Harlem Theater operated a confectionery. When the Harlem opened in the midst of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Depression in late 1935, the theater soon established itself as one of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s most visible and stable Black-owned businesses. In film industry terms, the HarlemÃ¢â¬â¢s success was small. With only 14,000 African American residents in 1935, AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s marketplace for Black films was extremely limited, and the theater never expanded nor led to a chain of others. But, through a combination of strategic location, product differentiation, managerial conservatism, and diversification, the Harlem Theater was able to become a profitable local business in the midst of an industry whose structure tended to favor national giants. Like the Lyric before it, the Harlem was established by a middle-class, Black Austin native who had been educated at Tillotson College and operated successfully in other local business before embarking on a risky career in the amusement industry. But George F. Jones, who was already in his forties when he opened the Harlem, also had some experience in programming films for Black audiences. His older brother Evie had purchased an Edison projector in the Ã¢â¬Ëteens and traveled to tent shows in the South and Black churches in Philadelphia showing Ã¢â¬Å"church moviesÃ¢â¬ (that is, filmed passion plays) to all-Black audiences. After college, five years as a postal clerk, and ten years as a bookkeeper. George F.Ã Jones himself had worked as the head of Prairie View, TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ Auditorium (a film theater) while employed as a clerk at Prairie View State College (1925-35) (Brewer 7). With his wife, Sadie, a Prairie View graduate and educator, Jones was active in the Austin real estate market and their Ã¢â¬Å"co-partnershipÃ¢â¬ became known for Ã¢â¬Å"accumulating valuable real estate holdings. Ã¢â¬ For the last two decades of his life Jones devoted most of his efforts to managing the Harlem, setting up residence next door to the corner theater upon his return to Austin from Prairie View. While his establishment may not have been unique for its time (there were more than three or four hundred Black theaters in the country), the Harlem was remarkable for being only one of seven US theaters owned and operated by Blacks (The Early Days in East Austin, D42). As an experienced theater manager, real estate buyer, and member of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s African American community. George Jones no doubt realized the importance of the theaterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic location in determining its success at attracting movegoers. East 12th Street was essentially the Main Street of East Austin (Early Days in East Austin, D42). The area around the Harlem represented a microcosm of African American life: it was both a quiet neighborhood of residences, churches, grocers, drug stores beauty shops, and cafes, and a place to be Ã¢â¬Å"going up on the cutsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â a street where the action and entertainment were, in the form of taverns, beer joints, and (a block away) the Cotton Club and Paradise Inn for music and dancing. The Harlem was also part of Ã¢â¬Å"The End,Ã¢â¬ that area around 12th and Chicon Streets (one block away) where AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s streetcars, until their cessation in 1940, stopped and turned back toward downtown. In essence, those factors which determined that White theaters were centrally located along Congers Avenue Ã¢â¬â transportation proximity, pedestrian traffic, shopping convenience, high visibility Ã¢â¬â similarly made East 12th the choice location for a successful Black movie house.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
In this paper we will discuss the waste treatment plans that have been implemented, its benefits and those that are in the process of implementation. Past accomplishments in waste treatment It was in 1990 that Japan first made amendments in its environmental laws, including regulations regarding improvement of treatment facilities, restriction of emissions, restriction of waste, relief to waste pollution victims, restriction of land use and other issues. Initially, people were not concerned with environmental improvement and only wished that they would not have to be victims of pollution. Slowly, this changed and people began to believe that it was necessary to implement environmental friendly ideas. Japan then got involved in the most rigorous efforts ever invested in minimizing wastes and promoting recycling as far as possible. The industrial wastes problem included the misuse of disposal sites, inappropriate treatment methods and inappropriate reclamation of wastes. These activities caused the people of Japan to fear environmental damage and began to lose confidence in the environmental laws. In response to this, in 1993, an environmental law was passed: The Basic Law for the Promotion of a Recycling-Oriented Society of 2000.We will write a custom essay sample on Japan waste pollution or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The law aims to: reduce the amount of waste as far as possible, reuse the wastes over and over as far as possible, when items cannot be reused, they must be recycled and used as raw material, even when waste materials are incinerated, use the heat generated by incineration for power generation, also known as thermal recycling, in case none of the above is possible, dispose of waste material in an appropriate manner. (Wong, 2010). Another law which has greatly contributed to the cause of managing and reducing waste pollution is The Waste management law, amended in 2000. The law includes: Definition and categorization of wastes, standards for waste treatment, implementing national policy and regional programs, treatment of municipal waste by municipalities, authorization for waste transporters, treatment facilities and landfills, manifest system for industrial waste and official inspection and penalties. (2.kankyo. metro. tokyo. jp) Present accomplishments in waste treatment Several other laws have been implemented in Japan over the recent years in an attempt to curb waste pollution such as packaging recycling law, electric appliances recycling law, construction waste recycling law, food waste recycling law and end-of-life vehicle recycling law.